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What is a CRM?
It is a storage that collects information about customers and this offers companies the opportunity to build good relationships with them, facilitates to your pursuit and your activities. A large part of small businesses after a period of the first 12 months of activity, meet with failures.
How do we know if we need CRM?
Usually, the necessity for a CRM arises after negative results. Imagine if an employee with high sales skills is fired, and all the information about customers has been stored with him and leaves you without their details. one of your potential customers tells you that he has decided to do business with someone else – and you find out that this potential dates back before you look for someone to buy from.
What benefits can you get if you use a CRM?
• All customer interactions and information can be stored in a location accessible to all;
• Tracking potential customers in the sales pipeline;
• Monitoring the marketing campaign as well as following the activities of the sales team;
• Generating accurate information about forecasts in express time;
• Just with the click of a button, view all results and activities;
• Accessing all the information in the organization, in locations outside the office, about the clients;
• Accurate identification of sales process losses;
• Offer statistics.
This method requires four types of meetings:
Daily Meetings: The team meets every day and spends about 15 minutes, standing, answering the following three questions: What did I do yesterday? What will I do today? What obstacles do I face today?
Planning meetings: The entire team gets together to decide which features will go into the next sprint and to update the overall list.
Activity Review Meetings: During this meeting, each member presents what they did during the sprint. A demonstration of the new functionalities and a presentation of the architecture are organized. This is an informal, two-hour meeting where the entire team is present. At the end of each sprint, the team reviews the aspects that worked well and those that
Retrospective meetings ( Flashbacks): At the end of each sprint, the team reviews the aspects that worked well and those that worked less well. During this 15-30 minute meeting, a vote of confidence is held to decide what improvements need to be implemented.
• Minimization of documentation in order to increase productivity;
• Avoiding the “tunneling effect”, i.e. achieving the result only with the final delivery and to not predict anything concrete during the whole development phase;
• The sequential composition of the sprint content allows a modification or addition of a functionality that was not initially expected. This is the main aspect that makes this method “agile”;
• Participatory method: each team member is invited to express his or her opinion and can contribute to all decisions taken within the project, thus being more involved and motivated;
• Facilitate communication: by working in the same room or being connected through different means of communication, the team can easily communicate and exchange information about the obstacles encountered in order to eliminate them as soon as possible;
• Improved cooperation: daily communication between the client and the team makes possible closer cooperation between the two sides;
• Increased productivity: by eliminating some of the “requirements” inherent in classical methods, such as documentation;
• The delivery time of the final product is significantly reduced.
The SCRUM methodology involves the intervention of three main protagonists:
Product Owner: Product Manager and Customer Team Coordinator. He is the one who defines and establishes the priority functionalities and selects the date and the content of each sprint based on the workload reported by the team.
ScrumMaster: This contributes to the smooth operation of the project, ensures that each member can work at full capacity eliminating impediments and protecting the team from outside disturbances. Also, special attention is paid to the observance of the various phases of the SCRUM.
The Team: usually consisting of about 4-10 people, the team brings together the necessary specialists in a project, namely: architect, designer, programmer, tester, etc. The team is self-organizing and remains unchanged throughout the sprint.
Following the waterfall model, the developer moves from one stage to the next in a strictly sequential manner.
First of all, the “requirements definition” phase is absolutely completed, resulting in a list of software requirements. Once the requirements are fully defined, a transition to design takes place, during which documents are created that describe in detail for programmers the method and plan for implementing these requirements.
After the complete completion of the design, the programmers perform the implementation of the resulting project. The next step in the process is the integration of individual components developed by various teams of programmers. After implementation and integration, the product is tested and debugged; At this stage, all the shortcomings of the previous stages of development are eliminated. After that, the software product is implemented and its support is offered – the introduction of new functionalities and the elimination of errors.
Advantages of the waterfall model:
• Full documentation of each stage;
• Clear planning of terms and costs;
• Transparency of processes for the customer;
When to use the waterfall model:
• In projects with clearly defined requirements, for which no changes are envisaged in the development process;
• For projects that migrate from one platform to another. That is, the requirements remain the same, only the system environment and / or programming language changes;
• When the development company is not required to conduct testing – for example, the customer or a third-party firm will be engaged in providing it.
The waterfall model is simple and straightforward; therefore, today the waterfall model is used mainly by large companies for large and complex projects that involve comprehensive risk control.
Waterfall development principles
1) Documents and instructions are important, everything must be recorded.
2) The next stage of work does not begin until the previous one is completed.
3) You cannot skip stages.
4) If the requirements for the product have changed after approval, we rewrite the TOR.
5) You cannot go back to the previous stage to change something.
6) No iteration, there is one general process for creating a product.
7) Identify and fix errors – only at the testing stage.
8) The client does not participate in the creation of the product after the statement of the technical task.
Development using a waterfall model is five strictly sequential steps.
The team collects requirements for a future product. Then he writes a detailed technical assignment, plans a work schedule and possible risks. Proceeds to the next stage only when all the requirements are spelled out and there is a plan. And in the plan – instructions on what to do and when.
The team creates a prototype and prepares design layouts. When it’s ready, the developers connect.
At this stage, the product code is written according to the plan, layouts and requirements. Not a step to the side, everything is clear according to the TK.
The code is ready, testing begins. Problems may arise here. For example, the team will find serious bugs in the code and spend a lot of time fixing them. This is the main disadvantage of the waterfall development model.
Operation and support
The project is handed over to the customer and a predetermined time is monitored so that everything works.
To conclude Waterfall is a methodology where everything is initially thought out and fixed, and this has its advantages. There are projects for which it suits – those in which all the requirements are known in advance and cannot be changed in the course of work and where there is no risk of making a mistake.
In 2019 in Italy the growth of the e-commerce trend was almost 17%.
According to statistics from the B2C Observatory in Milan, Italian ecommerce sites recorded sales to domestic consumers of 27.4 billion euros. Of these, 15.8 sell goods on the Internet, the others – services.
In the online food sales sector, the IT and electronics sector has a record 4.6 billion euros, followed by clothing at 2.9, furniture at 1.4 and food at 1.1. All industries are growing at a high rate.
In the field of services, the leader of the survey is tourism and transport by 9.8 euros, which would mean an increase of about 6% for 2017 compared to the increase in sales of train and plane tickets, as well as in this number. and rest homes. In the last year, 50 million orders have been placed for these services, with an average bill of about 230 euros.
In terms of purchasing methods, Politecnico observatories show that in 2018, in Italy, 31% of e-commerce buyers go on smartphones, 7% on tablets, and the remaining 62% on desktops.
Buying and selling goods and services on the Internet can significantly reduce costs, increase the flexibility and individuality of services offered, and increase sales on the Internet.
In Romania in the same year 2019, there was a 27% increase in people who shopped online. People have made online purchases of products or services at least once a month compared to 2017, according to a study of the e-commerce market by iSense Solutions. The study is significant for the urban environment where the volume of transactions is higher. , the number of online purchases increases, compared to 2018 where the increase was 10%.
A survey for the profiles of online shoppers looks like this:
About 20% of Romania prefer to buy from online stores.
Where to buy online?
A top 10 online stores: eMAG (8 out of 10 Romanians buy from eMAG), OLX (36%), Altex (33%), Okazii (26%), Elefant (25%), H&M (20%), Carrefour. ro (19%), CEL.ro (17%), Fashion Days (17%) and Bilete.ro (17%).
What do you buy online?
The star categories are: clothing, footwear, computers, accessories, software, electronics & appliances, stays, travel services, hotel services, furniture and decorations, transport tickets (plane, car, train) but also FMCG products.
Why buy online frequently?
The first reason would be the criterion of “best price” followed by the key phrase “fast delivery” then “friends’ recommendations” and “known store” but also not to forget about “store advertising”.
The expectations of the buyers from the online stores are to be created the possibility to offer a review (feedback). They would like contests, raffles, interactive relations with the online stores. It would be an interesting aspect to watch but it is quite rare.
Payment by card
Another research tells us about the methods of payment. It’s about paying by card, the number of people who pay online by card in 2019 has increased by 11%. Their favorite categories were: clothing, entertainment, service bills, etc.
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